Manual Current Topics in Developmental Biology, Vol. 56

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The storage and release of this lipid is highly regulated and is a defining function of mature adipocytes.

Supporting Information

In addition adipocytes secrete many factors that affect appetite, insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. In obesity, despite abundant adipose tissue, the adipocytes appear to be dysfunctional and their lipid storage capacity may be exceeded, leading to overflow of lipids to other tissues.

For this reason obese individuals may suffer similar metabolic problems to patients with lipodystrophy. Overall, this means that understanding the development and function of adipocytes may lead us to new therapies by which these can be modified to treat both rare lipodystrophies and common obesity. A key approach we are taking is to investigate the functional roles of genes known to cause lipodystrophy in humans, particularly those whose disruption causes severe loss of adipose tissue.

Evidently the products of these genes are critical for the development of adipose tissue in humans, however, relatively little is known about their molecular role in developing adipocytes. This work is exemplified by our studies of the protein seipin, encoded by the gene BSCL2. Patients with disruption of seipin have almost no detectable adipose tissue and we were the first to show that this may result from an inability to make new fat cells from stem cells lacking seipin.

However, the precise function of seipin has remained unknown until very recently.

Books by Gerald P. Schatten (Author of Current Topics in Developmental Biology, Volume 76)

We have now shown that seipin acts as a binding protein for a known regulator of adipogenesis which may at least partly explain why it is needed for adipocyte development Sim et al. However, we have also identified multiple other binding proteins, both in developing and in mature adipocytes.

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A major component of our research is to investigate these further both in vitro and in vivo. Understanding what the products of lipodystrophy genes do, the pathways they influence and the proteins they regulate will give key insights into human adipose tissue development and function. By identifying novel pathways and proteins that can influence adipocyte function, this work may also reveal new therapeutic targets for the treatment of common obesity and metabolic disease.

Adipocyte Development and Function

This work is funded by the MRC. Investigating the role of gamma-synuclein in adipocyte function:.

Transcriptional Switches During Development, Volume 98 Current Topics in Developmental Biology

We recently showed that the loss of gamma-synuclein can protect against the development of obesity following high fat diet feeding Millership et al. This was associated with increased energy expenditure, probably linked to activation of a distinct type of fat tissue called brown adipose tissue BAT. There is a great deal of interest in activating BAT to burn lipids in this way to reduce fat mass and treat obesity.

Current Topics in Developmental Biology. Developmental timing. Preface.

At a molecular level we identified a novel role for gamma-synuclein altering adipocyte lipolysis, the process via which the lipid droplet is broken down so that lipid can be released from the fat cell. This may be mechanistically linked to increased energy expenditure with increased breakdown of the lipid droplets in WAT adipocytes feeding substrates to the activated BAT adipocytes where they are burnt and the energy dissipated as heat. Cookies on our website We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used.

The Challenges and Promises of 3D Reconstruction

Email: jfhasler05 msn. Media designed for the recovery, holding and cryopreservation of bovine and equine embryos are available from several commercial sources. In years past, some of these media contained bovine serum, although inclusion of serum in embryo transfer media is now largely discontinued due to issues relating to storage and biosecurity. Currently, bovine serum albumin BSA is included in most commercially manufactured media intended for use in embryo transfer ET. Although BSA poses less risk than serum for the transmission of infectious disease, its inclusion still entails risk of viral contamination.

The present review briefly describes the various components of ET media and the development of efficacious ET media containing no products of animal origin. An evaluation of the efficacy of recovery, holding, slow controlled freezing and vitrification media in both research and commercial ET embryo transfer settings is also presented. Particular thanks to George E. McCue, Edward L.

Eldridge-Panuska and L. Kathy Shearer, in the Bioniche embryo media production facility Pullman, WA , prepared most of the media used in the studies conducted at CSU and in the field.

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  5. The authors is also grateful to several ET practitioners for contributing field trial data, especially G.